THE STYLE OF SCIENTIFIC THINKING: AN EPOCHAL OR A DISCIPLINARY CONCEPT?

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Stil' nauchnogo myshleniya: epokhal'naya ili distsiplinarnaya koncepciya?
Author(s): 
Alexandr Pozdnyakov
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Issue number: 
No. 1 (Vol. 39)
Pages: 
191-210
Abstract: 

The two concepts of the style of scientific thinking compares in the article. With the epochal point of view style of thinking reflects the phases in the development of science, the nature of it’s induced by scientific methodology of epoch, and respectively styles come and go over time. With the disciplinary point of view style of thinking associated with a specific scientific discipline, the nature of it’s induced by the subject and methodology the discipline, respectively different styles coexist in the same time. The relation of style of thinking to the scientific picture of the world is discussed. There are the two different models of the world pattern. In one model, all things are treated as derivatives of the space, in the other one, the world is presented as a set of hierarchically organized systems. From this viewpoint the classical and non-classical styles of thinking can be combined in the space-atomistic metastyle. The demonstrations of this metastyle are observed not only in the natural sciences, but also in linguistics, history, and sociology. The problem of relations of style of scientific thinking and other ways of describing the world is discussed. A sociocultural component of scientific activity lies in the center of paradigms and research programs. The typological correspondence between them and style of thinking is not revealed because of focusing on different aspects of scientific activity. A relatively complete correspondence between styles and basic cognitive models is revealed.

Keywords: 
style of scientific thinking, phase of scientific development, scientific discipline, worldview, space
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