Publication Type:


Transliteration of original Title: 
Ilya T. Kasavin
Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences
Issue number: 
No.4 (Vol.54)

The question about epistemic nature of norms is a special case of discussing the non-standard definition of knowledge. Is it possible to expand the understanding of knowledge beyond the propositions expressed by narrative sentence and describing what takes place? Might a moral norm, an aesthetic ideal, a religious symbol be taken as specific types of knowledge? Thesis on the special epistemological status of science, its empirical basis and methods lies in the basis of naturalistic revision of epistemology by Quine. White, on the contrary, considers scientific observations and moral experiences equal means to justify objective and normative content in science as well as in morality and art. With regard to the contemporary expansion of the subject matter of epistemology White is more advantageous, although both sides ultimately do not extend beyond reduction of all cultural phenomena to the facts of individual consciousness. The resolution of the dispute under consideration can be provided by the turn of epistemological reflection to the study of the cognitive content of cultural objectivizations of human activity and communication, to the analysis of specific forms of representation and functions of whatever cognitive phenomena in the social artifacts. On the one hand, this extends the subject-matter of traditional epistemology by involving all the diversity of consciousness and on the other hand, this prepares methodological insights for cultural and religious studies, ethics, aesthetics, and political science.

epistemology, normativity, science, morality, descriptive, objectivization, consciousness

Ayer A.J. The Problem of Knowledge. London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1956. 224 p.

Black M. The Gap between “Is” and “Should”, in: Philosophical Review, 1964, vol.73, no. 2, pp. 165 – 181.   

Bloor D. Wittgenstein: Rules and Institutions. New York: Routledge, 1997. 192 p.

Boghossian P. Fear of Knowledge. Against Relativism and Constructivism. Oxford: Clarendon, 2006. 160 p.

Boghossian P. Fear of Terminology. An Interview with Paul Boghossian. By Khatchig Mouradian, in:  Aztag Daily, Sunday, June 3, 2007.

Gettier E. Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, in: Analysis, 1963, vol. 23, no.6, pp. 121–123.

Holtzman S., Leich Ch. (eds.). Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule. New York: Routledge. 2010. 268 p.

Kasavin I.T. Migratsiya. Kreativnost'. Tekst. Problemy neklassicheskoi teorii poznaniya [Migration. Creativity. Text. Problems of non-classical theory of knowledge]. Saint Petersburg: RKhGI, 1998. 408 p. (In Russian)

Kripke S. A. Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language. An Elementary Exposition. Сambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press. 1982. 160 p.

Maksimov L.V. Kognitivizm kak paradigma gumanitarno-filosofskoi mysli [Cognitivism as a paradigm of social thought and humanities]. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2003. 160 p. (In Russian)

Mikeshina L.A. Epistemologiya tsennostei [Epistemology of values]. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2007. 439 p. (In Russian)

Mikeshina L.A. Tsennostnye predposylki v strukture nauchnogo znaniya [Value preсonditions in the structure of scientific knowledge]. Moscow: Prometei, 1990. 208 p. (In Russian)

Moore G. Printsipy etiki [Principles of Ethics]. Moscow: Progress, 1984. 327 p.

Nevvazhay I.D. Kriterii nauchnosti v normativnykh teoriyakh: neokantianstvo i teoriya prava Gansa Kel'zena [Scientific Criterions in Normative Theory: Neo-Kantianism and Kelsen's Theory of Law], in: Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Seriya Filosofiya. Psikhologiya. Pedagogika, 2014, vol.14, no. 2-1, pp. 25-30. (In Russian)

Quine W. Reply to Morton White. In: L. E. Hahn and P. A. Lewis (eds.). The Philosophy of W. V. Quine. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1986, pp. 663 – 665.

White M. Normative Ethics, Normative Epistemology, and Quine's Holism In: L. E. Hahn and P. A. Lewis (eds.). The Philosophy of W. V. Quine. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1986, pp. 649 – 662. 

Full Text: