HISTORICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND PERCEPTION OF DARWINISM AND ANTIDARWINISM

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Istoricheskie i metodologicheskie osnovanija razvitija i vosprijatija darvinizma i antidarvinizma
Author(s): 
Elena Muzrukova
Institute for the history of science and technology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Roman Fando
Institute for the history of science and technology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Issue number: 
No. 3 (Vol. 45)
Pages: 
184-198
Abstract: 

The article considers different philosophical and methodological approaches in understanding the essence of the living, the approaches which reveal the dynamics of evolution. The authors analyze how different theoretical concepts (Darwinism and antidarwinism) conditioned various interpretations of the same facts in the study of cognitive models. The article shows how research of these models has led to the modern scientific ideas suggested by different scientists. These examples from the history of science clearly demonstrate the competition between numerous methodologies and heuristic hypotheses that exist in the field of different biological disciplines. The established variety is explained as a result of complexity of the organization of the life and multidimensional system of interaction of biological objects with each other and with the environment.

Keywords: 
scientific paradigm, the methodology of biological cognition, the history of science, philosophy of science, cognitive models, competition of heuristic hypotheses
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DOI: 
10.5840/eps201545383