ON THE TWO LEVELS IN THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS

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Transliteration of original Title: 
O dvuh urovnyah epistemologii soznaniya
Author(s): 
Danil Razeev
Saint Petersburg State University
Issue number: 
No. 2 (Vol. 44)
Pages: 
74-86
Abstract: 

The article considers different approaches to investigating consciousness. The author claims that consciousness study can be divided into two different epistemological levels. The first level of the epistemology of subjectivity was developed by philosophers and rational psychologists during the period of Early Modern Time, and can be divided into ph-epistemology, i.e. the epistemology of physical facts including our bodies, and m-epistemology, i.e. the epistemology of mental events.

In the XX century, by naturalizing mind and inventing new non-invasive tools in investigating our brain, the epistemology of subjectivity went to the next level. The author considers contemporary movements in philosophy of mind working on the second epistemological level: eliminative materialism, property dualism, functionalism and so-called mysterianism. The author suggests dividing the second level into r-epistemology, i.e. the reductive epistemology that reduces and identifies our consciousness activity with a set of neuronal, electro-chemical and physical processes in nature, and n-epistemology, i.e. the non-reductive epistemology that considers consciousness as an independent phenomenon in nature.

Keywords: 
epistemology of consciousness, mind-body problem, naturalism, reductive and non-reductive physicalism
References: 

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Churchland 1986 - Churchland P. S. Neurophilosophy: Toward a Unified Science of the Mind-Brain. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

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Hameroff, Penrose 2014 - Hameroff S., Penrose R. Consciousness in the universe: A review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory, Physics of Life Reviews: Elsevier. 2014. 11 (1): 39–78.

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Skinner 1953 – Skinner B. F. Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan,1953.

DOI: 
10.5840/eps20154429
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