THE FIRST GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE FORMATION OF THE PICTURE OF REALITY IN BIOLOGY IN THE XVII-XVIII CENTURIES

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Pervaja globalnaja nauchnaja revolutsija i formirovanije predmetnoj realnosti biologii XVII - XVIII v.
Author(s): 
Sergej Kornilov
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Issue number: 
No. 1 (Vol. 43)
Pages: 
149-161
Abstract: 

The Modern Age development of biology studies was closely connected with the General progress of scientific knowledge. Epistemological optimism was based on the results of liquid and solid mechanics researches and the development of wide-applied experimental and inductive methods in physics.  Finding the universal law of the nature and the final explanation for the being became the main research reason. The major philosophers focused their attention on the problem of scientific methods.

 The process of breaking new intellectual grounds on the domain of physical world explanation was successful and the primary goal seemed to be near .

  The rise of so-called “biological reality” during the XVII-XVIII centuries supported the development of theoretical concepts, specific research methods and accumulation of factual material. A range of biological disciplines was founded: systematic and comparative anatomy, embryology, anthropology, physiology of plants and animals, were among them. A number of important discoveries demonstrated the possibilities of  experimental methods in biology. However, the scope of its use was limited. Comparative description remained the main research method. The development of the classification of living organisms contributed to the understanding of the unity of organic world. At the same time some scientific schools, which programs were based on the other ontological and epistemological purposes, were founded. Their supporters believed that the idea of “organisms as machines” leads to a loss of specificity of biological research object. Due to these discussions the problem of the nature science foundations was formulated.

Keywords: 
The scientific revolution, biology, mechanism, philosophical foundations of science
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DOI: 
10.5840/eps201543137
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