HISTORY, MEMORY, AND HISTORY AS A SCIENCE

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Istoriya kak pamyat’ i istoriya kak nauka
Author(s): 
Georgiy Antipov
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management
Issue number: 
No. 4 (Vol. 42)
Pages: 
124-142
Abstract: 

The epistemological mechanisms of historical study and history as a science form the subject of long discussions and disputes. The evolution of historical knowledge is often derived from the cultures of primeval societies, from myth, not emphasizing its differences with other forms, in particular, from scientific historiography. There is an opinion that it is a mistake to think that history is fundamentally different from other sciences. The history does not develop its theory up to the level of physics or genetics. On the other hand, it is argued that the history is akin to art. That it is the synthesis of theoretical and artistic-creative thinking. Therefore, the history cannot be measured according to the standards which we apply to other sciences. According to one more position the history is a science, however it manifests some features, which indicate its peculiarity. History differs from biology or physics because it is oriented towards unique, unrepeatable events. Natural sciences are, on the opposite, oriented towards repeated events. The main idea of the analysis in the article is defined by the introduced concept of memorial practice. The historical memory is derived from it. Historiography emerges in the form of memorial practice, techne, as this phenomenon was recognized in antiquity. Proper scientific form of historical knowledge starts to be originated only by XIX century under the influence of the established by that time scientific methodology. The analysis presented in the article distinguishes between competences of memorial practice, which are oriented towards historical memory, and historical knowledge, which is, in fact, history as a science. The confusions are  to which the lack of the understanding of the given circumstances is leading.

Keywords: 
memorial practice, history, historical memory, narrative, laws, trends
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