ISSN 1811-833Х (Print)
ISSN 2311-7133 (Online)
In the Russian philosophy the problem of the reduction of chemistry to physics has been traditionally treated from the point of view of the concept “the form of motion of matter”. In the long run this position is tautological: chemistry studies chemical phenomena. The present article treats the problem of the reduction of chemistry to physics by basing on the concepts of the contemporary analytical philosophy: – “hypothetico-deductive theory”, “the ontological reduction”, “the scientific realism”. Our analysis is not talking about how nature works, but allows us to clarify the structure of scientific knowledge. The classical scheme of the reduction of the theories was proposed by Ernst Nagel in his classical book “The structure of science”. Nagel takes the reduction as a deduction of the reduced theory on the base of more fundamental theory. This procedure requests the formulation of the “rules of correspondence” which connect the terminology of the reduced theory to the theory which provides the basis of deduction. According to the Nagel scheme the reduction of the chemical theory of the bond and valence to quantum mechanics is a deduction. However, the real situation in quantum chemistry is more complicated. To clarify the situation the present author invites Quine’s concept of ontological reduction. The reduction taken as a deduction does not necessarily imply the ontological reduction of the basic concepts of the reduced theory. The problem of the reduction of the chemical theory of the bond and valence to quantum mechanics is also connected with the debates about the epistemological status of approximations used in quantum chemistry. For example, do the atoms implied by the computational methods really exist in a molecule? These debates can be clarified with the help of the controversy “scientific realism – instrumentalism”.
Bersuker I.B. Stroenie i svoystva koordinatsionnykh soedineniy. MOSCOW, 1971.
Dirak P.A.M. Quantum mechanics of many-electrons systems. Proceedings of Royal Society. 1929. Vol. 133 A.
Engel's F. Dialektika prirody (Egels F. Dialectic of Nature). MOSCOW, Gospolitizdat. 1955.
Flisza´r, S.: Atomic Charges, Bond Properties, and Molecular Energies. Wiley, New Jersey 2009.
Fursov A. A. Problema statusa teoreticheskogo znaniya v polemike mezhdu realizmom i antirealizmoMoscow, Avtoreferat… na soiskanie uchenoy stepeni kandidata filosofskikh nauk. MOSCOW,: izd. MGU. 2010.
in molecules?// Foundations of Chemistry. 2013. DOI 10.1007/s10698-013-9187-z
Jensen F. Introduction to computational chemistry. John Wiley and Sons. 2007.
Kedrov B.M. Predmet i vzaimosvyaz' estestvennykh nauk (The object and interconnection of natural sciences). MOSCOW, AN SSSR, 1962.
Koulson Ch. Valentnost' (Valence). Moscow, 1965.
Kuznetsov V.I. Evolyutsiya predstavleniy ob osnovnykh zakonakh khimii (Evolution of images of basic laws of chemistry). Moscow. 1967.
Lehn J.M. Supramolecular Chemistry – Scope and Perspective. Molecules, Supramolecules, and Molecular Devices (Nobel Lecture). Angewandte Chemie. Vol. 27, Number 1, January 1988, P. 89-112.
Mak Vini R., Satklif B. Kvantovaya mekhanika molekul (Quantum mechanics of molecules). Moscow, 1972.
Malliken R.S. “Spectroscopy, molecular orbitals and chemical link” (“Spektroskopiya, molekulyarnye orbitali i khimicheskaya svyaz'”). Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk (Successes of physical sciences). 1968, vol. 94, no. 4.
Markov A.A. “On the relation of physical laws and biological laws” (“Ob otnoshenii fizicheskikh zakonov k biologicheskim”). O sushchnosti zhizni. MOSCOW, Nauka, 1964.
Nagel E. The structure of science: problems in the logic of scientific explanation. N.Y., 1961.
Ogurtsov A.P. “Hegel’s ‘philosophy of nature’ and its place in the history of philosophy of science” («Filosofiya prirody» Gegelya i ee mesto v istorii filosofii nauki). Gegel'. Entsiklopediya filosofskikh nauk (Hegel G Encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences). Vol.2. MOSCOW, 1975.
Parr, R.G., Ayers, P.W., Nalewajski, R.F. What is an atom in a molecule? J. Phys. CheMoscow, A 109, 2005. P. 3957–3959.
Pechenkin A. The 1949–1951 anti-resonance campaign in Soviet Science. LLULL. Vol. 18. 1995. P. 135–166.
Pechenkin A.A. Antirezonansnaya kampaniya v sovetskoy nauke. 1949–1951 gg. Preprint № 64 Instituta istorii estestvoznaniya i tekhniki. MOSCOW,, 1991;
Pechenkin A.A. Metodologicheskie problemy razvitiya kvantovoy khimii (Methodological problems of development of chemistry). MOSCOW, Nauka, 1976.
Poling L. “The nature of the theory of resonance” (“Priroda teorii rezonansa”). Perspektivy razvitiya organicheskoy khimii (Perspectives of development of organic chemistry). Moscow, 1971.
Poling L. Priroda khimicheskoy svyazi (The nature of chemical connection). Moscow, 1947.
Pozharskiy A.F. Molekulyarnoe raspoznavanie. Corosovskiy obrazovatel'nyy zhurnal. No. 9, 1997.
Quine W.V.O. Ontological reduction and the world numbers. In: Quine W.V.O. The ways of paradox and other essays. Harvard Univ. Press. 1975. P. 212-220.
Rutkevich M.N. On the forms of movement in nonorganic nature (O formakh dvizheniya v neorganicheskoy prirode). Uchenye zapiski ural'skogo Gos. Universiteta. No. 21. Sverdlovsk, 1957.
Shant Shahbazian. Beyond the orthodox QTAIM: motivations, current
Shant Shahbazian. Letter to the editor: Are there ‘‘really’’ atoms
Shtoff V.A. Forms of movement in nonorganic nature (Formy dvizheniya materii v neorganicheskoy prirode). Filosofskie voprosy sovremennogo ucheniya o prirode. Lenngrad, 1962.
Smotritskiy E.Yu., Shubin V.I. Reduktsionizm kak nauchno-filosfskiy printsip (Reductionism as scientific and philosophical principle). Dnepropetrovsk, 1999.
Solopov E.F. Predmet i logika materialisticheskoy dialektiki (Object and logic of materialistic dialectics). Leningrad, 1973, pp. 22–33;
Solopov E.F. The correlation of the forms of movement and types of matter in nature (Sootnoshenie form dvizheniya i vidov materii v prirode). Voprosy filosofii. 1963, no. 8.
status, prospects and challenges Foundations of Chemistry. 2012. DOI 10.1007/s10698-012-9170-0
Vasil'eva T.S., Orlov V.V. Khimicheskaya forma materii (Chemical form of matter). Permskoe knizhnoe izd. 1983.
Veselov M.G. Elementarnaya kvantovaya teoriya atomov i molekul (Elementary quantum theory of atoms and molecules). MOSCOW, 1962.