GENDER METAPHORS IN FRANCIS BACON’S IMAGE OF SCIENCE

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Gendernye metafory v obraze nauki F. Bekona
Author(s): 
Natalya Martishina
PhD, Professor of Siberian Transport University
Issue number: 
No. 2 (Vol. 40)
Pages: 
127-137
Abstract: 

The idea of the feminist philosophy of science about classical science as masculine enterprise is discussed. An interpretation of this evaluation as a key metaphor that can be used for description of the classical science is proposed. It is demonstrated that masculinity is a characteristic not only of the classical science, but also of the image of science in common notions. (The image of science is defined as the whole representation about the nature of science and it’s place in human existence which exists in professional and / or mass consciousness). Gender features of philosophical image of the classical science are identified on the base of analysis of linguistic tools which Francis Bacon has used for the description of science. Two main metaphors used by Francis Bacon to describe the scientific knowledge are: 1) idea of journey, way which expands horizons, and 2) idea of practical work what uses proper tools. At the F. Bacon`s epoch both of them are associated with men`s activity only. The main types of practical work used for comparison with science are architecture and house-building, land cultivation and mining. Then, there are a number of additional metaphors in which scientific research is described in terms of war, hunting and game; they are associated with masculine practice too. Analysis also provides expanded metaphor in which science is presented as a female divinity (Sphinx). It seems to make gender image of science more compound but we see the idea of Reason as force which researches, invades into and masters the Sphinx. So, this metaphor proposes the masculine interpretation of the figure of scientist too. The author makes the conclusion that construction of science as masculine enterprise is not only the feature of the classic science as the objectified system of research, but also the implicit image of science that exists in the mentality of the philosophers and scientists of New Ages. Transition from classical to non-classical science is marked by change of key metaphors, and feminine ones appear among them.

Keywords: 
image of science, philosophical metaphors, classical science, Francis Bacon.
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