A DEFLATIONARY ACCOUNT OF GROUP TESTIMONY.

Publication Type:

Language:

Transliteration of original Title: 
Deflyatsionistskiy podkhod k gruppovomu soobshcheniyu
Author(s): 
Jennifer Lackey
Northwestern University
Issue number: 
No. 2 (Vol. 36)
Pages: 
16-41
Abstract: 

How should we understand group testimony as a source of knowledge? According to a reductionist account, a group’s testimony that p is epistemologically reducible to the testimony of some individual(s). In contrast, a non-reductionist account of these phenomena maintains that in some very important sense, the group itself is the bearer of the state. In this paper, I raise problems for both views and then develop my own deflationary account, according to which the epistemic status of a group’s testimony is reducible to that of one or more individuals, though not necessarily ones who are members of the group in question.

Keywords: 
testimony, knowledge, reductionism, non-reductionism, deflationism
References: 

Adler J. E. Belief’s Own Ethics. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2002.

Audi R. Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge. London: Routledge, 1998.

Audi R. The Place of Testimony in the Fabric of Knowledge and Justification.   American Philosophical Quarterly. 1997. Vol. 34. P. 406.

Audi R.Testimony, Credulity, and Veracity.   The Epistemology of Testimony; J. Lackey and E. Sosa (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. P. 25–49.

Burge T. Content Preservation.   The Philosophical Review. 1993. Vol. 102. P. 457–488.

Burge T.. Interlocution, Perception, and Memory.   Philosophical Studies. 1997. Vol. 86. P. 21–47.

Burge, Tyler. Content Preservation.   The Philosophical Review. 1993. Vol. 102. P. 486.

Coady C.A.J. Testimony: A Philosophical Study. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992. P. 42.

Dietrich F. Judgment Aggregation: (Im)possibility Theorems.   Journal of Economic Theory.  2005. Vol. 126. P. 286-298.

Disagreement and Belief  Dependence: Why Numbers Matter.   The Epistemology of Disagreement: New Essays; D. Christensen and J. Lackey (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dummett M. Testimony and Memory.   Knowing from Words; B.K. Matilal and A. Chakrabarti (eds.). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. P. 251–272.

Elgin C. Z. Take It from Me: The Epistemological Status of Testimony.   Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 2002. Vol. 65. P. 292.

Faulkner P. The Social Character of Testimonial Knowledge.   The Journal of Philosophy. 2000. Vol. 97. P. 581−601).

 Fricker E. Against Gullibility.   Knowing from Words; B.K. Matilal and A. Chakrabarti (eds.) Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. P. 125–161.

 Fricker E. Telling and Trusting: Reductionism and Anti-Reductionism in the Epistemology of Testimony.   Mind.  1995. Vol. 104. P. 393–411.

Gilbert M. On Social Facts. London: Routledge, 1989.

 Gilbert M.. Remarks on Collective Belief.    Socializing Epistemology: The Social Dimensions of Knowledge;  F.F. Schmitt (ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1994. P. 235–256.

Goldman A. I. Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.   Journal of Philosophy. 1976. Vol. 73. P. 771–791.

 Goldman A.. What Is Justified Belief?.   Justification and Knowledge; G. Pappas (ed.). Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979. P. 1–23.

Goldman A.I. Social Epistemology.   The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; E.N. Zalta (ed.). http:. plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2009/entries/epistemology-social/

Graham P.J. What is Testimony?.   The Philosophical Quarterly. 1997. Vol. 47.

 Hardwig J. Epistemic Dependence.   The Journal of Philosophy. 1985. Vol. 82. P. 335–349.

Hardwig J. The Role of Trust in Knowledge.   The Journal of Philosophy. 1991. Vol. 88. P. 693–708.

Lackey J. Learning from Words.   Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 2006. Vol. 73. P. 77–101

Lackey J. Learning from Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

List C. Group Knowledge and Group Rationality: A Judgment Aggregation Perspective.   Episteme. 2005. Vol. 2: P. 25.

List C., Pettit P. Aggregating Sets of Judgments: An Impossibility Result.   Economics and Philosophy. 2002. Vol. 18. P. 89–110.

McDowell J. Knowledge by Hearsay.   Knowing from Words; B.K. Matilal and A. Chakrabarti (eds.). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. P. 195–224.

Nozick R. Philosophical Explanations. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1981.

Owens D. Reason without Freedom: The Problem of Epistemic Normativity. London: Routledge, 2000.

Pauly M., van Heese M. Logical Constraints on Judgement Aggregation.   Journal of Philosophical Logic. 2006. Vol. 35. P. 569−585.

Pettit P. Groups with Minds of Their Own.   Socializing Metaphysics; F. Schmitt (ed.). New York: Rowman and Littlefield. 2003. P. 171.

Plantinga A. Warrant and Proper Function. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Pritchard D. Epistemic Luck. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005

Quinton A. Social Objects.   Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. 1975/1976. Vol. 75. P. 1–27.

Reynolds S.L. Testimony, Knowledge, and Epistemic Goals.   Philosophical Studies. 2002. Vol. 110. P. 139–161.

 Ross A. Why Do We Believe What We Are Told? Ratio. 1986. Vol. 28. P. 69–88.

Ross, J. Testimonial Evidence.   Analysis and Metaphysics: Essays in Honor of R.M. Chisholm; K. Lehrer (ed.). Dordrecht: Reidel, 1975. P. 3.

Schmitt F.F. Testimonial Justification and Transindividual Reasons.   The Epistemology of Testimony; J. Lackey and E. Sosa (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. P. 193–224.

 Sosa E. Contextualism and Skepticism.   Philosophical Issues. 2000. Vol. 34. P. 94–107.

Sosa E. How Must Knowledge Be Modally Related to What Is Known?.   Philosophical Topics.  1999. Vol. 26. P. 373–384.

Sosa E. Knowledge in Perspective: Selected Essays in Epistemology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

 Sosa E. Postscript to «Proper Functionalism and Virtue Epistemology».   Warrant in Contemporary Epistemology. J. L. Kvanvig (ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996. P. 271–281

 Sosa E. Tracking, Competence, and Knowledge.   The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology; P. Moser (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. P. 264–287

Tollefsen D. Group Testimony.   Social Epistemology. 2007. Vol. 21. P. 300

Tuomela R. Group Beliefs.   Synthese. 1992. Vol. 91. P. 285–318.

Welbourne M. The Transmission of Knowledge.   The Philosophical Quarterly.  1979. Vol. 29. P. 1–9

 Welbourne M.. Testimony, Knowledge and Belief.   Knowing from Words; B.K. Matilal and A. Chakrabarti (eds.). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.

Welbourne M. The Community of Knowledge.   The Philosophical Quarterly. 1981. Vol. 31. P. 302–314

Welbourne M. The Community of Knowledge. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1986

Williamson T. Knowledge and its Limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Full Text: