ECLECTICISM AND SYNCRETISM: ON SYSTEMACY OF PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Eklektika i sinkretizm: k voprosu o sistemnosti filosofskogo znaniya
Author(s): 
Lyudmila Mikeshina
Moscow Pedagogical State University
Issue number: 
No. 4 (Vol. 38)
Pages: 
27-43
Abstract: 

The article is devoted to eclecticism and syncretism, to their meaning and functions in the history of philosophical knowledge: from an interpretation of philosophical knowledge in terms of “natural” eclectic combination of elements from different teachings (Alexandria, I-III centruries) to the reconstruction of the systems of German thinkers (XVIII-XIX centuries) and the overcoming of systematicity that followed, as well as, to the emergence of a new eclecticism in postmodernist philosophy. A need of an understanding from different perspectives and a contemporary reconsideration of the history and the nature of syncretism and eclecticism in philosophy is supported by the modern interpretation of such “classical eclectics’ as Cicero and Diogenes Laertius. The author considers the views of A.F.Losev and G.G.Majorov, who showed that evaluations of the two aforementioned thinkers follow the traditional criteria of the past centuries: whether such-and-such philosopher had or had not constructed a philosophical system of his own (the former being a sign of eclecticism).

The author continues with a consideration of the evaluations given by Diderot in the Encyclopedia, in which an eclectic is viewed as a philosopher who rejects the tradition and authority. Also she discusses the views of such Hegelians as K.Marx, M.Stirner, L.Feuerbach who united the criticism of German philosophy with antropologism and some French socialist ideas. Their philosophical ideas are viewed as eclectic in the positive sense of the term which takes into account all the meanings in the dialogue of different ideas, approaches and conceptions.

The author also considers G.G.Shpet’s discussion of a critical and positive views on eclecticism in the Russian philosophy (A.I.Herzen, P.L.Lavrov). The article ends with a consideration of syncretism and eclecticism as basic methods in postmodernist philosophy on the material of words of such thinkers as J.-F.Liotard, and W.Welsch as well as G.Bataille and J.Baudrillard.

Keywords: 
syncretism, eclecticism, natural sciences, I. Newton, the humanities, A. Koyreґ, W. Dilthey, U. Eco, the modern, the postmodern
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