SOCIAL EPISTEMOLOGY: ITS ORIGINS AND PRESENT

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Sotsial'naya epistemologiya, ee istoki i ee nastojashchee
Author(s): 
Lyudmila Markova
Institute of Philosophy RAS
Issue number: 
No. 2 (Vol. 40)
Pages: 
59-73
Abstract: 

Nowadays the most important and difficult problem for the social epistemology is how to overcome the empiricism and the absence of a logical system which would be able to preserve in its frame the individuality of its constituents. The return to the rationality of the New Time does not give the desired result. Both the attempts to appeal to classical logic in its integrity and to some of its elements, which are especially difficult to refuse from in their previous quality, testify this. I mean, first of all, the notions of truth and knowledge objectivity that are directly connected with the necessity to remove all social elements from the knowledge. But just these social moments, provides the individuality of the results, obtained in science. The emergence in the last century trends of thinking on the basis of communication between authors of scientific achievements instead of generalization of already existing results evolved two features of the thought of a new type. On the one hand, the communication is possible only between subjects who are different, otherwise we shall have to deal with one person. In this case he has nobody to communicate with. On the other hand, we need to have something common for the communication. It is this common, that presupposes the communication between individuals who do not coincide with each other, that is becoming the basis of new logic and gives it the property of universality. This general is emerging out the environment, medium, of the context where there are no common or individual, where the border between them is disappearing, and in general all borders that are essential for classic are blurred. Many contemporary philosophers and sociologies are studying opportunities to move through the newly arisen border between the context where we do not have the usual divisions, in the world where both the generalization and the communication are possible. The appearance in the philosophical analysis of the points of science growth such a notion as convergence also shows the growing interest in the studies of a new field of epistemology.

Keywords: 
classical epistemology, social epistemology, scientific knowledge, border, general, individual, logic, empiricism, blurring of boundaries.
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