BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY AS A PROBLEM OF HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

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Transliteration of original Title: 
Biomeditsinskiye tekhnologii kak problema istorii i filosofii nauki
Author(s): 
Irina Gerasimova
Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences
Issue number: 
No. 2 (Vol. 40)
Pages: 
5-18
Abstract: 

According to a government forecast, biotechnology, medicine and health will be the priorities of science and modernization of Russia until 2030. Development of the Life Sciences and their practical applications raises issues related to the competence of epistemology, history and methodology of science, philosophy of technology and philosophical anthropology. What today is medicine – science, skill or biotechnology of the human development? Medicine as science and practice brings new dimensions to the discussion of problems of truth, possibilities and limits of knowledge, features of observation and experiment, creative thinking, social constructivism, dialogue of cognitive practices. Analysis of a problem of scientific and extra-scientific knowledge on the example of history of medicine doesn't promise unambiguous decisions. Research of the laws changing types of rationality in the history of medical practices leads to the conclusion that the sequential changes of stages - magical practices, nature corresponding medicine, natural-science medicine and techno-science medicine. Holistic and vitalism – the main features of ancient medicine. Sense pre-scientific medicine can be called nature corresponding medicine, based on personal knowledge and experiences of the physician, and the forces of nature. In the school of Hippocrates formed the analytical method based on the methods of induction, deduction, semiotics. Natural philosophy was the picture of the world, the principles which has been specified in the medical practice. The coexistence of ancient medicine and modern biotechnology introduces non-standard dimensions of the dialogue of cognitive practices. Feelings of traditional doctors served as the instrument of diagnostics, and the skill of biotechnologists achieved the perfection in cooperation with the technical device. Dialogue with nature at the level of high technology enables a new level to discuss old philosophical problem of possibilities and limit of human knowledge.

Keywords: 
biomedical technology, philosophy of Sciences, scientific, extrascientific, history of medicine, cognitive practice, nature corresponding medicine, technoscientific medicine.
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